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Do not eat raw rice, you might get very ill. From LiveStrong:

Lectin is a protein that serves as a natural insecticide with a strong affinity for carbohydrates. Found on uncooked rice and beans, this protein is one of the top 10 causes of food poisoning and can lead to nausea, diarrhea and vomiting when eaten in abundance.

There are also Bacillus Cereus which is a bacteria that can be poisonous in a similar way and cellulose which is indigestible fiber. All of these make cooking rice a very important step for consumption.

Even if you wanted to ferment it, you’d still have to cook or steam it first. So I’d say you either pack pre-cooked rice or choose something else to eat.

On another hand, if you have access to electricity you can cook your rice in the microwave almost the same way as with conventional heat. Add rice and water to cover in a microwave-safe container, put a lid on it (leave a small opening so steam can escape) and turn it on for 10 or 15 minutes.

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I am a big fan of tea. I hail from Punjab, India. I like it with cardamom and milk and water in 1:1 proportion. And I like to boil everything together (this is the way its done in majority of Indian households). Recently, I noticed that the tea tastes much better if I put sugar in my cup after pouring the tea in it, rather than boiling the sugar with everything. It tastes so fresh this way that I have altogether stopped putting in the sugar while boiling. Is there anyone who shares this taste with me and can give me some scientific explanation on what is the difference?

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I like my porridge cold so I typically prepare it in the evening and store it in the fridge for breakfast the following morning. My recipe normally includes 1/2 tbsp of honey for sweetening. When I remember to put it in, the cold porridge next morning has a nice goopy consistency that is easily stirred with a spoon. If I forget the honey, though, the porridge seems to congeal or set into a thicker, more jelly-like consistency, which can be broken up but not stirred so easily. What is it that makes the honey have this effect, and does it do something similar to other foods?

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If neither vinegar nor elbow grease is affecting the “soot” on the cabinets, it sounds like it is more than just soot, but maybe soot + sticky oil residue. Try an ammonia solution. Ammonia works on my sticky grease kitchen residue pretty well. If it seems to help at all, try increasing concentrations (maybe testing first on inconspicuous parts of your cabinet in case it removes paint or something), until you get a strength that works for you.

As for the frying pan, heat it up until that gross sooty grease-gel melts a little, then wipe it out with a paper towel. Repeat with more paper towels until the easily-removed gunk starts to get pretty sparse on the paper towels. Then start adding fresh oil and rubbing it around with more paper towels in the warm pan. The fresh oil and heat ought to help dissolve that “jellied” oil and you can remove even more of the gunk. Pretty soon I think it should get to a point where it is just “dirty” instead of horrendous.

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In most (Swedish) homes, there are electric stoves that go from 1 to 6, and in some cases all the way up to 12!

Is there an agreed-upon standard deciding roughly what temperature a number corresponds to on the stove-scale?

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There have been a number of scientific studies addressing the question of how much caffeine is extracted depending on brewing time. Perhaps the most cited is from 1996, but a 2008 study (carried out to debunk the myth that tea can be decaffeinated with a 30-second steep) also gives some useful data with a variety of teas.

To address your question specifically, approximately 70-80% of caffeine is removed, on average, in a 6-minute steep with boiling or near-boiling water. It will vary depending on variety of tea (green, black, etc.) and form (whole black tea leaves release caffeine the slowest; black tea bags containing tea fannings the fastest). Regarding the 30-second “decaf method,” only about 10% of caffeine is released in that short time, so it’s hardly effective. You’d need to steep for at least 5 minutes or so to remove a significant portion of the caffeine.

Given the number above for a 6-minute steep, the maximum amount you could expect to extract from a longer steep for hours or days would be 20-30% of the original caffeine content of the leaves. So you could potentially increase the amount of caffeine in the final brew to maybe 1.25 times of the 6-minute cup or a little more, depending on variety.

However, it should be noted that more than 90% of caffeine will be released by 15 minutes, so steeping for hours or days is not very productive. If, for some reason, you wish to extract the most caffeine from the leaves possible, I would recommend multiple short steeps (5 minutes or less) instead, perhaps with a higher concentration of leaves. Using fresh water periodically will allow faster extraction of caffeine, and you’ll also avoid the inevitable bitterness that generally comes from a single long brewing.

(I should note all of the above regards typical brewing with relatively hot water. Brewing tea with room temperature water or with cold water will significantly increase the time it takes for caffeine to be extracted. In that case, brewing for hours may be necessary to allow large portions of the caffeine to dissolve.)

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Shrimp can have up to 0.25% STPP, fish even more!

STPP reacts with calcium or magnesium salts. These are commonly found in pool PH buffers, or as gypsum (food grade gypsum is used as a tofu coagulant)

۱ Kg of shrimp could have up to 2.5g of STPP, so a 1/2 tsp of a calcium or magnesium salt dissolved in hot water, and diluted to 1 l, would make a neutralising bath for 1 Kg of shrimp. Leave it in for 10 or 20 minutes and rinse thoroughly

It may also react with citric acid (used in baking), or just use the juice of a small lemon instead

The only problem with this is it may leave a soapy taste

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More temperature?

If after an hour they haven’t softened up at all, and this occurs with different vegetables (so you’re certainly not just encountering a batch of old, dried out gourds or something,) the problem is almost certainly an inaccurate oven thermostat. Oven thermostats are notoriously unreliable. Get an oven thermometer and see what temperature your oven really is.

More or less stacking?

for even cooking and optimal browning, you should arrange your vegetables in one layer on the tray. If this were the primary problem, the vegetables on either the top, bottom, and/or in the middle (depending on the intensity and direction of your heat source) would be undercooked while the more exposed parts would be more cooked.

More oil/liquid?

Note, oil and water based liquids affect cooking very differently. Water-based liquids will get the vegetables to soften more quickly than oil because water transfers heat more efficiently than oil, and it can turn to steam which is a good medium for spreading heat evenly on an uneven surface (such as a pile of chopped vegetables.) It also kills any possibility of browning because water doesn’t get hotter than 212. Just because it’s in the oven, it doesn’t mean you aren’t steaming your vegetables rather than roasting them. There’s nothing wrong with steamed veg, but that’s a very different end-product than roasted veg. More oil will create more crispiness, but a thin, even coating over all of the vegetables should be the only thing you need to roast them properly.

Now, about that recipe: 175 is low for roasting those types of vegetables. Even without par-boiling/steaming them (which lets you finish them at a higher temperature for more even browning and crispiness,) I’d still go with something around 220. That said, even if the cut vegetables were heavily refrigerated, you still shouldn’t be waiting hours for them to soften up if your oven was actually 175. Get an oven thermometer!

Good luck, and happy roasting!

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As Lorel C mentioned in the comments, botulinum clostridium won’t grow in acidic environments. It also won’t grow in cold environments. You’ve got the peppers in vinegar and in the refrigerator. I think you’re good.

Even with the peppers being fairly warm when refrigerated— it’s always a good idea to let things cool in the open air before putting them into sealed containers in the refrigerator because even under refrigeration they’ll take much longer to cool in a sealed container— adding a bunch of acid and storing the jar in the refrigerator reduces the risk to pretty much nothing.

You primarily have to worry about botulism when you’ve got things in an anaerobic environment (e.g. covered in oil, or honey, or vacuum sealed, or in a package filled with some other sort of gas, or packed into sausage casings) between 3C/37F and 50C/122F, with a PH above 4.6. Garlic and onions are more likely to have spores on them because the spores are very common in the soil of many places where garlic and onions are grown.

In the famous case where a man was poisoned with botulism toxin when eating a home-pickled egg, they determined the source of contamination was a toothpick which he used to poke a hole in the eggs— a commonly-used (and likely ineffective) method to get the brine to penetrate pickled eggs more thoroughly. The spores entered the egg via the toothpick, the hole in the egg was an anaerobic environment suitable for the bacteria to grow, and he stored them at room temperature. Had he simply stored them in the refrigerator, the spores would have remained dormant, he could have eaten his tasty eggs, and he would have been alive to tell us how tasty they were.

If you want to nerd out on this for a hot second, here is an article that discusses bacterial growth as it relates to food production and storage.

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A recent date left this for me to find…a surprise gift, how sweet! I’d love to know just how sweet 🙂

It’s 1 3/8 inches, 3.5 cm thick. The larger piece weighs 143 grams or 5 ounces.

It tastes pretty good (but I am definitely no connoisseur) and it’s certainly in the semi-sweet/bittersweet range.

I just discovered one more possible hint, WinCo Foods sells chocolate block pieces in their bulk food section, there are WinCos in my date’s home state of Idaho. They carry both what they call dark chocolate and bittersweet chocolate.

BUMMER! The bounty has expired, but I will still make good on it. I will give 250 pts to anyone who first positively identifies the mystery chocolate before I can. May the force be with you.

Chocolate picture 1

chocolate picture 2

chocolate picture 3

chocolate picture 4

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